Демография России (сайт посвящён проф. Д. И. Валентею)
Population Research and Policy Review 22 (5-6): 411-438, December 2003
Copyright © 2003 Kluwer Academic Publishers All rights reserved

The Changing Institutional Context of Low Fertility

Ronald R. Rindfuss
Carolina Population Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA
Karen Benjamin Guzzo
Author for correspondence Department of Sociology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
S. Philip Morgan
Department of Sociology, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708, USA
Using data for 196097 for 22 low fertility countries, we document a dramatic change in the association of fertility levels to women's levels of labor force participation. Until the 1980s, this association had been strongly negative. However, during the 1980s it became positive, and since 1990 strongly positive. We also document an emerging positive association of the country-level total fertility ratio (TFR) and nonmarital ratio (e.g., the proportion of births to unmarried women). We argue that these transformed associations reflect societal level responses that, in some contexts, have eased the incompatibility between mother and worker roles, and loosened the link between marriage and childbearing. These arguments imply that societal responses to mother/worker incompatibility exert substantial influence on fertility levels in low fertility countries.

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